Projects

CIS 706: Translator Design I, Spring 2017


Example Project – Static Java Compiler (sjc)

Static Java Compiler (sjc) is a compiler for a strict “static” (procedural) subset of Java (a compiler for structured programs in Java without objects). This project is used to illustrate various concepts in designing and implementing a translator.

Features/Limitations of Static Java

  • Only two variable types: boolean and int
  • No objects (thus, no exception handling), arrays, or threads
  • Only static fields and methods
  • Method return type can be the above type and void
  • No method overloading
  • Can call Java library static methods (e.g., Integer.parseInt())
  • Consists only one class that has a Java main method (String array is allowed here)
  • No increment and decrement expressions
  • No package declaration (i.e., the declared class lives in the default package)
  • All code must be in one file, etc.

Concrete Syntax of Static Java

<program>                     ::= <class-declaration>
<class-declaration>           ::= "public" "class" ID "{" <main-method-declaration> <field-or-method-declaration>* "}"
<main-method-declaration>     ::= "public" "static" "void" "main" "(" "String" "[" "]" ID ")" "{" <method-body> "}"
<field-or-method-declaration> ::= <field-declaration> | <method-declaration>
<field-declaration>           ::= "static" <type> ID ";"
<method-declaration>          ::= "static" <return-type> ID "(" <params>? ")" "{" <method-body> "}"
<type>                        ::= "boolean" | "int"
<return-type>                 ::= <type> | "void"
<params>                      ::= <param> ( "," <param> )*
<param>                       ::= <type> ID
<method-body>                 ::= <local-declaration>* <statement>*
<local-declaration>           ::= <type> ID ";"
<statement>                   ::= <assign-statement>
                                | <if-statement>
                                | <while-statement>
                                | <invoke-exp-statement>
                                | <return-statement>
<assign-statement>            ::= ID "=" <exp> ";"
<if-statement>                ::= "if" "(" <exp> ")" "{" <statement>* "}" ( "else" "{" <statement>* "}" )?
<while-statement>             ::= "while" "(" <exp> ")" "{" <statement>* "}"
<invoke-exp-statement>        ::= <invoke-exp> ";"
<return-statement>            ::= "return" <exp>? ";"
<exp>                         ::= <literal-exp>
                                | <unary-exp>
                                | <paren-exp>
                                | <binary-exp>
                                | <invoke-exp>
                                | <var-ref>
<literal-exp>                 ::= <boolean-literal> | INT
<boolean-literal>             ::= "true" | "false"
<unary-exp>                   ::= <unary-op> <exp>
<unary-op>                    ::= "+" | "-" | "!"
<binary-exp>                  ::= <exp> <binary-op> <exp>
<binary-op>                   ::= "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "%" | ">" | ">=" | "==" | "<" | "⇐" | "!=" | "&&" | "||"
<paren-exp>                   ::= "(" <exp> ")"
<invoke-exp>                  ::= ( ID "." )? ID "(" <args>? ")"
<args>                        ::= <exp> ( "," <exp> )*
<var-ref>                     ::= ID

ID                              = ( ‘a’..’z’ | ‘A’..’Z’ | ‘_’ | ‘$’ ) ( ‘a’..’z’ | ‘A’..’Z’ | ‘_’ | ‘0’..’9’ | ‘$’ )*
INT                             = ‘0’ | (’1’..’9’) (’0’..’9’)*

Static Java as implemented in Eclipse JDT, ASM, and JVM Bytecode

StaticJava Eclipse JDT (org.eclipse.jdt.core.dom.*) ASM (org.objectweb.asm.tree.*) JVM Bytecode
<program> CompilationUnit N/A N/A
<class-declaration> TypeDeclaration ClassNode N/A
<main-method-declaration> MethodDeclaration MethodNode N/A
<field-declaration> FieldDeclaration FieldNode N/A
<method-declaration> MethodDeclaration MethodNode N/A
<type> Type (PrimitiveType) N/A N/A
<return-type> PrimitiveType N/A N/A
<param> SingleVariableDeclaration N/A N/A
<method-body> Block N/A N/A
<local-declaration> VariableDeclarationStatement LocalVariableNode N/A
<assign-statement> ExpressionStatement (Assignment) VarInsnNode ISTORE, PUTSTATIC
<if-statement> IfStatement JumpInsnNode IF_xxx, GOTO
<while-statement> WhileStatement JumpInsnNode IF_xxx, GOTO
<invoke-exp-statement> ExpressionStatement (MethodInvocation) MethodInsnNode INVOKESTATIC
<return-statement> ReturnStatement InsnNode RETURN, IRETURN
<literal-exp> BooleanLiteral, NumberLiteral InsnNode ICONST_M1, ICONST_0, ICONST_1, ICONST_2, ICONST_3, ICONST_4, ICONST_5, BIPUSH, SIPUSH, LDC
<unary-exp> PrefixExpression IntInsnNode, JumpInsnNode INEG, IF_EQ
<binary-exp> InfixExpression InsnNode, JumpInsnNode IADD, ISUB, IMUL, IDIV, IREM, INEG, IF_xxx, GOTO
<paren-exp> ParenthesizedExpression N/A N/A
<invoke-exp> MethodInvocation MethodInsnNode INVOKESTATIC
<var-ref> SimpleName VarInsnNode, FieldInsnNode ILOAD, GETSTATIC

Miscellaneous: POP, POP2, DUP, DUP_X1, DUP_X2, DUP2, DUP2_X1, DUP2_X2, SWAP

Solo Project – Extended Static Java Compiler (esjc)

Extended Static Java Compiler (esjc) is a compiler for a strict “static” subset of Java that extends the Static Java compiler by including, for example, heap objects/arrays. This project serves as an individual mini-project for students to demonstrate their understandings of the essential concepts in designing and implementing a translator.

Features/Limitations of Extended Static Java

  • Allows user-defined class and (one-dimensional) array types
  • No threads
  • Only static fields and methods for the main (public) class, and public (non-static) fields for the rest.
  • Method return type can be the above type and void
  • No method overloading
  • Can call Java library static methods (e.g., Integer.parseInt())
  • Consists only one public class that has a Java main method, and non-public classes
  • No increment and decrement expressions
  • No package declaration (i.e., the declared class lives in the default package)
  • All code must be in one file, etc.

Concrete Syntax of Extended Static Java

Note: non-terminals with ! are new or modified (wrt. StaticJava concrete syntax)

<program ! >                  ::= <simple-class-declaration>* <class-declaration> <simple-class-declaration>*
<simple-class-declaration ! > ::= "class" ID "{" <public-field-declaration>* "}"
<public-field-declaration ! > ::= "public" <type> ID ";"
<class-declaration>           ::= "public" "class" ID "{" <main-method-declaration> <field-or-method-declaration>* "}"
<main-method-declaration>     ::= "public" "static" "void" "main" "(" "String" "[" "]" ID ")" "{" <method-body> "}"
<field-or-method-declaration> ::= <field-declaration> | <method-declaration>
<field-declaration>           ::= "static" <type> ID ";"
<method-declaration>          ::= "static" <return-type> ID "(" <params>? ")" "{" <method-body> "}"
<type ! >                     ::= ( <basic-type> | ID ) ( "[" "]" )?
<basic-type>                  ::= "boolean" | "int"
<return-type>                 ::= <type> | "void"
<params>                      ::= <param> ( "," <param> )*
<param>                       ::= <type> ID
<method-body>                 ::= <local-declaration>* <statement>*
<local-declaration>           ::= <type> ID ";"
<statement ! >                ::= <assign-statement>
                                | <if-statement>
                                | <while-statement>
                                | <invoke-exp-statement>
                                | <return-statement>
                                | <for-statement>
                                | <do-while-statement>
                                | <inc-dec-statement>
<assign-statement>            ::= <assign> ";"
<assign>                      ::= <lhs> "=" <exp>
<lhs ! >                      ::= ID | <exp> "." ID | <exp> "[" <exp> "]"
<if-statement>                ::= "if" "(" <exp> ")" "{" <statement>* "}" ( "else" "{" <statement>* "}" )?
<while-statement>             ::= "while" "(" <exp> ")" "{" <statement>* "}"
<invoke-exp-statement>        ::= <invoke-exp> ";"
<return-statement>            ::= "return" <exp>? ";"
<for-statement ! >            ::= "for" "(" <for-inits>? ";" <exp>? ";" <for-updates>? ")" "{" <statement>* "}"
<for-inits ! >                ::= <assign> ( "," <assign> )*
<for-updates ! >              ::= <inc-dec> ( "," <inc-dec> )*
<inc-dec ! >                  ::= <lhs> "++" | <lhs> "––"
<do-while-statement ! >       ::= "do" "{" <statement>* "}" "while" "(" <exp> ")" ";"
<inc-dec-statement ! >        ::= <inc-dec> ";"
<exp ! >                      ::= <literal-exp>
                                | <unary-exp>
                                | <binary-exp>
                                | <paren-exp>
                                | <invoke-exp>
                                | <var-ref>
                                | <new-exp>
                                | <array-access-exp>
                                | <field-access-exp>
                                | <cond-exp>
<literal-exp ! >              ::= <boolean-literal> | INT | "null"
<boolean-literal>             ::= "true" | "false"
<unary-exp>                   ::= <unary-op> <exp>
<unary-op>                    ::= "+" | "-" | "!" | "~"
<binary-exp>                  ::= <exp> <binary-op> <exp>
<binary-op>                   ::= "+" | "-" | "*" | "/" | "%" | ">" | ">=" | "==" | "<" | "<=" | "!=" | "&&" | "||" | "<<" | ">>" | ">>>"
<paren-exp>                   ::= "(" <exp> ")"
<invoke-exp>                  ::= ( ID "." )? ID "(" <args>? ")"
<args>                        ::= <exp> ( "," <exp> )*
<var-ref>                     ::= ID
<cond-exp>                    ::= <exp> "?" <exp> ":" <exp>
<new-exp>                     ::= "new" ID "(" ")"
                                | "new" ( <basic-type> | ID ) "[" <exp> "]"
                                | "new" ( <basic-type> | ID ) "[" "]" <array-init>
<array-init>                  ::= "{" <exp> ( "," <exp> )* "}"
<field-access-exp>            ::= <exp> "." ID
<array-access-exp>            ::= <exp> "[" <exp> "]"

ID                              = ( ‘a’..’z’ | ‘A’..’Z’ | ‘_’ | ‘$’ ) ( ‘a’..’z’ | ‘A’..’Z’ | ‘_’ | ‘0’..’9’ | ‘$’ )*
INT                             = ‘0’ | (’1’..’9’) (’0’..’9’)*